Traveling Wave

Traveling wave, or progressive wave is a wave in which the medium moves in the direction of propagation of the wave (thefreedictionary) or in another words, moving in a particular direction. They transfers energy from one part of a medium to another but the particles are not traveling with the wave, merely going up and down, in contrast to a standing wave.

 
 
Waves can be considered to travel either as plane wavefronts, from a plane source or as circular wavefronts from a point source. In 3 dimensions, the waves would propagate spherically from a point source.

 

A traveling wave which is confined to one plane in space and varies sinusoidally in both space and time can be expressed as combinations of :

or in complex form :

which may be shown to be a combination of the above forms by the use of the  
Euler identity :





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